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Senin, 03 Juni 2013

MATERI KULIAH TK I A,B,C,D TGL 04 JUNI 2013 (SELASA)



DETERMINERS

Determiners are a special kind of adjective. Like other adjectives, determiners describe nouns. But unlike other adjectives, determiners must agree with the nouns they describe. In other words, you must know whether the noun is a singular count noun, a noncount noun before you can choose the correct determiner. The noun determines with adjective form you use.

1. Determiners A / An and The

Remember that both a and an mean one. They are used before singular count nouns. A is used before words that begin with a consonant sound. An is used before words that begin with a vowel sound.

A
Consonant sound

A
Foreign student
Must have an 1-20 form

An
Vowel sound

An
International student
Must have an 1-20 form

Here are some more examples:
Incorrect  : it is a big decision to choose an university.
Correct     : it is a big decision to choose a university.
Incorrect  : do you have an use for the empty box?
Correct     : do you have a use for the empty box?
Incorrect  : let’s just wait an year or two before we get married.
Correct     : let’s just wait a year or two before we get married.
Incorrect  : I will call you back in a hour.
Correct     : I will call you back in an hour.


2. A/An and The
Study this example:
I saw a film last night. The film was about a soldier and a beautiful girl. The soldier was in love with the girl but the girl was in love with a teacher. So the soldier shot the teacher and married the girl.

       Note: 
     The speaker uses a ( a film, a soldier, a girl … etc) because this is the first time he  talks
      about things he refers to.
      The speaker uses the ( the film, the soldier, the girl … etc) because the listener now
      knows which things he means. In a word we use a/an when the listener doesn't know
      which thing we mean. We use the when it is clear which thing we mean.

       Here are some more examples:

o   Yesterday I went to a bookstore for a book.     The  book was very expensive.
o   There was a man talking to a woman outside my house. The man looked English but I think the woman was foreign.
o   When we were on holiday, we stayed at a hotel. In the evenings, sometimes we had dinner at the hotel and sometimes in a restaurant.
o   Ann is looking for a job. (not a particular job)
o   Did Ann get the job she applied for? (a particular job)

1)      We use the when it is clear in the situation which thing or person we mean. For example, in a room we talk about 'the light / the floor / the ceiling / the door / the carpet' etc. We also say the bank, the post office, the airport, the doctor, the dentis, the police / the fire-brigade / the army. (The speaker is usually thinking of a particular bank or post office … and so forth.)
 
Study these examples:
·         Can you turn off the light, please? (= the light in this room)
·         Where is the toilet, please? (= the toilet in this building/house)
·         The postman was late this morning. (= our usual postman)
·         I took a taxi to the station. (= the station of that town)
·         We got to the airport just in time for our flight.
·         I must go to the bank to change some money and, then I'm going to the post office
      to buy some stamps.
·         John isn't very well. He has gone to the doctor. (= his doctor)

    2)  We say the ... when there is only one of something.
·         What is the biggest island in Indonesia ? (There is only one biggest island in Indonesia)
·         We went to the most expensive restaurant in town.
·         The only television programme he watches is the news.
·         Jakarta is the capital of  Indonesia
·         The earth goes round the sun. (Also: 'the moon / the world /the universe'.)

     3)  We say:    the sea    the sky    the ground    the countryside / the country
·         Would you rather live in a town or in the country?
·         Don't sit on the ground! It's wet.
·         We looked up at all the stars in the sky.
We say go to sea / be at sea (without the) when the meaning is go/be on a voyage;
·         Husen is a seaman. He spends most of his life at sea.
·         I would love to live near the sea. (not 'near sea')
We say space (not 'the space') when we mean space in the universe:
·         There are millions of stars in space, (not 'in the space')
·         He tried to park his car but the space wasn't big enough.

       4)  Cinema, theatre, radio, television.  We say the cinema / the theatre:
·         We went to the cinema last night.
·         Do you often go to the theatre?
Note that when we say 'the cinema / the theatre', we do not necessarily mean one
particular cinema or theatre. We usually say the radio:
·         I heard the news on the radio.
But we usually say television (without the):
·         We often watch television.
·         I watched the news on television.
·         Can you turn off the television, please? (= the television set)

        5) We also use the + a singular countable noun when we talk about a type of machine, an
             invention and about musical instruments. For example:
·            When was the telephone invented?
·            The bicycle is an excellent means of transport.
·            Can you play the guitar? (not 'Can you play guitar?')
·            The piano is my favourite instrument.

        6) The + adjective
            We use the with some adjectives (without a noun). The meaning is always plural.
            For example, the rich = rich people in general: '
the rich        the old         the blind   the sick          the poor   the disabled
the young     the deaf        the dead  the unemployed             the injured
 
        Do you think the rich should pay more taxes?
·         That man over there is collecting money for the blind.
·         Why doesn't the government do more to help the unemployed?
These expressions are always plural. You cannot say 'a blind' or 'an unemployed'. You have to say 'a blind man', 'an unemployed woman' etc.
7) The + nationality words
     You can use the with some nationality adjectives when you mean 'the people of that country'.
    For example:
·      The French are famous for their food. (= the French people)
·      Why do the English think they are so wonderful? (= the English people)

          You can use the in this way with these nationality words:
the British         the Welsh         the Spanish        the Dutch
the English        the Irish           the French         the Swiss

 
    Also with nationality words ending in -ese (the Japanese / the Chinese etc.) With other
    nationalities  you have to use a plural noun ending in -s: (the) Russians    (the) Italians    (the)
    Arabs (the) Scots  (the) Turks.
8)   Prison    school    university    college    church   hospital  mosque
    We say a criminal goes to prison (not 'to the prison'); a child goes to school; a student
    goes to university/college. We do not use the when we are thinking of the idea of these
    places and what they are used for:
·         After I leave school, I wan to go to university, (as a pupil/student)
·         Why aren't the children at school today? (as pupils)
·         Mr. Husen goes to mosque  every day. (for a religious service)
·         Ken's brother is in prison for robbery, (he is a prisoner)

Now study the different usage of the
·         Mrs. Elah went to the school to meet his daughter's teacher.
(She didn't go there as a pupil.)
·         Excuse me, where is the university, please? (a particular building)
·         The workmen went to the mosque to repair the roof. (They didn't go to a religious service.)
·         Ken went to the prison to visit his brother. (He went as a visitor, not as a prisoner; he went to the prison where his brother was.)

9) Countries and states:   We do not usually say the with the names of countries and states:   
    France (not 'the France')   Japan   West Germany   Nigeria   Texas.
    But we say the with names which include words like 'republic', 'union', 'kingdom', 'states':
    the German Federal Republic        the Soviet Union               the United States (of America)
    (usually called 'West Germany')      the United Kingdom        the Republic of Ireland  
    the United Arab Emira
    We also use the with plural names: the Netherlands    the Philippines

10) Islands:    Island groups usually have plural names with the:
      the Bahamas    the Canaries / the Canary Islands    the British Isles
      Individual islands usually have singular names without the: Corfu  Sicily    Bermuda  
      Easter Island

11)  Regions:    We say:
       the Middle East    the Far East  the north of England    the south of Spain    the west of
       Canada (but: northern England / southern Spain / western Canada - without the)

12)  Mountains:    Mountain ranges usually have plural names with the:
       the Rocky Mountains / the Rockies    the Andes    the Alps
       But individual mountains usually have names without the: (Mount) Everest
       (Mount) Ciremai    (Mount) Galunggung, etc

13)  Lakes:    Lakes usually have names without the: Lake Toba

14)  Names of oceans/seas/rivers/canals have the: the Atlantic (Ocean)    the Indian Ocean
        the Mediterranean (Sea)    the Red Sea    the (English) Channel  ; the Nile    the Amazon   
        the Thames    the Rhine the Suez Canal    the Panama Canal
        Note: On maps the is not usually included in the name.
15) We say the before the names of places, buildings etc. with of:
       the Bank of England (not 'Bank of England')       the Great Wall of China        
       the Houses of  Parliament     the Museum of Modern Art      the Tower of London

16) We say the with the names of newspapers:
        the Times       the Washington Post       the Jakarta Post, etc

17) We usually say the before the names of these places:
       hotels                    : the Hilton (Hotel), the Station Hotel
       restaurants! pubs  : the Bombay Restaurant, the Red Lion (pub)
       theatres                 : the Palace Theatre, the National Theatre
       cinemas                :  the ABC, the Odeon, the Classic
       museums/galleries : the Linggarjati Museum, the Tate Gallery

18) Many shops, restaurants, hotels, banks etc. are named after the people who started them.   
      These names end in s or 's. We do not use the with these names:
      shops             :  Selfridges (not 'the Selfridges'), Harrods
      restaurants    :  Maxim's, Macdonalds, Luigi's Italian Restaurant
      hotels             :  Claridge's
      banks             :  Barclays Bank, Lloyds Bank
      Churches are usually named after saints (St = saint): St John's Church   St Paul's Cathedral

EXERCISES

1. In this exercise you have to put in  a/an or the.
Example: There was a man and a  woman in the room. The man was English but the woman
                 looked foreign. She was wearing  a fur coat.

1.      This morning I bought ......... newspaper and .......... magazine. ............. newspaper is in my bag but I don't know where .........  magazine is.
2.      My parents have ........... cat and ......... dog. ...... dog never bites ......... cat but ........ cat often scratches........... dog.
3.      I saw ........ accident this morning ...... car crashed into ........ wall........ driver of ...... car was not hurt but ........ car was quite badly damaged.
4.      When you turn into Lipson Road, you will see three houses: ............ red one, .... blue one and ........... white one. I live in ............ white one.
5.      We live in .................... old house in  ........... middle of the village. There is ......... beautiful garden behind ............... house. .......... roof of .......... house is in very bad condition.
6.      Would you like .................... apple?
7.      Could you close.................... door, please?
8.      We live in .................... small flat near........... centre of the city.
9.      Have you finished with.................... book I lent you last week?
10.  We went out for........ meal last night.  .......  restaurant we went to was excellent.
11.  Did .......... police find .......... person who stole your bicycle?
12.  This is a nice house. Has it got .......... garden?
13.  It was warm and sunny, so we decided to sit in ............. garden.
14.  This morning I had ........... boiled egg and toast for breakfast.
15.  As I was walking along the street, I saw.................... £10 note on ............ pavement.
16.  I went into the shop and asked to speak to................ manager.
17.  'Have you got.................... car?'   No, I've never had .................... car in my life.'
18.  There's no need to buy any milk..................... milkman brings it every morning.

2. In this exercise you have to put in a/on or the. Sometimes you don 't need either word - you
    leave it blank.
    Examples: We went to ...the...  most expensive restaurant in town.
                       Last night we  went out for ..a meal in ..a.. restaurant.

1.   I wrote my name at.................... top of the page.
2.   ......... moon goes round ........... earth every 27 days,
3.   The Soviet Union was ........... first country to send a man into ...... space.
4.   Did you see the film on ......... television or at........... cinema?
5.   After .......... lunch, we went for a walk by ............ sea.
6.   I'm not very hungry. I had ................... big breakfast.
7.   John was ....................only person I talked to at the party.
8.   Tim live  in .................... small village in .................... country. .
10. I never listen to ................. radio. In fact I haven't got.................... radio.
11. It was............. beautiful day.  .......... sun shone brightly in .............. sky.
12. I've invited Tom to .................... dinner next Wednesday.
13. What is ....................highest mountain in .................... world?
14. We don't go to............ theatre very much these days. In fact, in ......... town where  we live there isn't ............ theatre.
15. It was a long voyage. We were at.................... sea for four weeks.
16. I prefer swimming in .................... sea to swimming in pools.
17. Can you turn .................... television down, please? It's a bit loud.

3. 1.  Now you have to make sentences from the words in brackets.
 Example: (Mary / play / piano very well). Mary plays the piono very well.
1. (Jack / play / guitar very badly)   Jack plays   
2. (Jill/play/violin in an orchestra)           
3. (I'd like / learn / play / piano)  
4. (you / play / guitar?)   

  2. Complete these sentences using the with these adjectives:
rich       sick       blind      poor       injured        unemployed        dead
Example: Braille is a system of reading and writing by touch for the blind
1. Many people were killed in the plane crash. The bodies of .......... were taken away ............ were taken to hospital.
2. Every English child knows the story of Robin Hood. It is said that he robbed ........ and   
 gave the money to.............. 
3.   Those people with jobs have enough money but life is not so easy  for...........
4. Agnes has been a nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for.......................
 
3. What do you call the people of these countries?
   Examples:  England ?  the English
1.  Britain?  ..................       6.  France?  ........................     10.  Switzerland? ..........
2.  Ireland? ..................        7.  Japan? ..........................     11  America (the.US) ?
3. Wales? ....................         8.  Germany? ...................     12.  the Netherlands? ...
4.  Scotland? ...............         9.  China? ..........................   13.  and your country?
5.  Spain? .....................

4. This time you have to choose the correct form, with or without the.
Example: Ken's brother is in prison/the position for robbery,  ('prison' is correct)
1         Some children hate school / the school.
2         What time do your children finish school / the school?
3         After leaving school / the school, Nora worked as a cleaner in hospital / at the hospital.
4         My brother is very ill in hospital / the hospital.
5         All over the world, people are in prison / the prison because of their political beliefs.
6         The other day the fire-brigade had to go to prison / the prison to put out a fire.
7         On the way to Ciamis we passed through a small village with an old mosque. We stopped to visit mosque / the mosque. It was a beautiful building.
8         Nina's mother is a regular mosquegoer. She goes to mosque / the mosque every Sunday. Nina herself doesn't go to mosque / the mosque.
9         Every term parents are invited to school / the school to meet the teachers.
10       After work / the work, Ann usually goes home / to home. '
11       Tom left university / the university without doing his examinations.
12       When Ann was ill, we all went to hospital / the hospital to visit her.
13       I like to read in bed / the bed before going to sleep.
14       What time do you have to start work / the work tomorrow morning?
15       How many people go to university / the university in your country?


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